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economic importance of sorghum ppt

The nutritional value of even the high tannin grains is acceptable when fed to livestock since they consume more sorghum to produce about the same amount of gain. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. In this document ‘cultivated sorghum’ or ‘sorghum’ will be used to refer to Sorghum bicolor Previous research, however, did not include costs associated with off-farm transportation, storage, or capital costs associated with milling and energy recovery equipment that are required to provide FC suitable for biological conversion. Sorghum fractions possess high antioxidant activity in vitro relative to other cereals or fruits. Improved resistance to molds in white or red sorghums is needed. Proanthocyanidins (PA) (condensed tannins) and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) are the two major classes of tannins. It is proposed that protein crosslinking may be the greatest factor that influences sorghum protein digestibility. J Nutr 111:1928–1936, Malleshi NG (2015) Post-harvest processing technologies for enhanced food and allied uses for millets in India. Eight of the Eritrean landraces grouped with other sorghums in the world collection, particularly those from Ethiopia/Sudan and India or of the durra and caudatum races, but most Eritrean sorghums clustered in a separate subgroup. Flavan-3-ols of up to 8–10 units have been separated and quantitatively analyzed. In spite of its economic importance, sorghum cropped area around the world has declined over the last four decades at a rate of over 0.15 million ha per year. Rooney LW, Serna-Saldivar SO (2000) Sorghum. The major areas of sorghum production are listed in Table 1 (FAO, 1995). For a discussion on the use of economic thresholds, go to "Economic Thresholds for Today's Commodity Values," which is an article adapted from the Proceedings of the UNL Crop Production Clinics 2009. And for an excellent and thorough discussion of economic thresholds, see the book "Economic Thresholds for Integrated Pest Management," Leon G. Higley and Larry P. Pedigo (eds). HISTORY OF SORGHUM. (, Reddy BVS, Sharma HC, Thakur RP, Ramesh S, Rattunde F, Mgonja M (2006) Sorghum hybrid parents research at ICRISAT—strategies, status and Impacts. Gao S, Wang Y, Li G (2010) Sorghum breeding and production in China. Since 1985, sorghum anthracnose, caused by a fungus, Colletotrichum sublineolum, has increased dramatically throughout Arkansas. In both locations, 22 accessions exhibited a resistant response. Also, the development of sorghums with improved digestibility may exacerbate the damage caused by molds. The center of origin of sorghum … Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production in Garu District of the Upper East Region, Ghana, Quantifying the agronomic performance of new grain sorghum hybrids for enhanced early-stage chilling tolerance, Modeling Climate Warming Impacts on Grain and Forage Sorghum Yields in Argentina, Integrated usage of synthetic and bio-fertilizers: an environment friendly approach to improve the productivity of sorghum, Use of genome editing technologies for genetic improvement of crops of tropical origin, Crop wild relatives as a genetic resource for generating low-cyanide, drought-tolerant Sorghum, Substitution of Zea mays by Sorghum bicolor on Performance and Gut Histo-Morphology of Ross 308 Broiler Chickens Aged 1–42 d, Semiautomated Feature Extraction from RGB Images for Sorghum Panicle Architecture GWAS, Genomic Designing for Climate Smart Sorghum, New candidate loci and marker genes on chromosome 7 for improved chilling tolerance in sorghum, Sorghum diseases and their management in cultivation: seedling, seed, panicle and foliar diseases, An integrated approach to maintaining cereal productivity under climate change, Future Outlook and Options for Target Crops: The Sorghum and Pearl millet Economy of India, Dynamics of value and trade channels of sorghum in India, An analysis of availability and utilization of sorghum grain in India, Recent advances in sorghum genetic enhancement research at ICRISAT, Factors Associated with Sorghum Cultivation under Rice Fallows, Changes in Area, Yield Gains, and Yield Stability of Sorghum in Major Sorghum-Producing Countries, 1970 to 2009, Genetics of post-flowering drought tolerance traits in post-rainy sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], Morphological and molecular diversity reveal wide variability among sorghum Maldandi landraces from India, Sorghum improvement (1980–2010): Status and way forward, Sorghum Hybrid Parents Research at ICRISAT-Strategies, Status, and Impacts, Sweet Sorghum as Feedstock for Ethanol Production: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Steam-Pretreated Bagasse, Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, The origin and early cultivation of sorghums in Africa, The Hindustani Center of Origin of important plants, Traditional methods of processing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennesetum americanum) grains in India, Sweet sorghum bagasse: A raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp. These results indicate that a great deal of germplasm diversity and genetic novelty are available in Eritrean sorghums, and that SSR markers can contribute to the wise use of this diversity for sorghum study and improvement. Of late 10-20% incidence was recorded on postrainy season sorghum (Narayana, 2006). United States Department of Agriculture/Human Nutrition Information Service, Agriculture Handbook 8-20. The major constraint to production of consistently high quality grain is the destruction or severe damage caused by insects and molds. Marissa, a sorghum beer, had a higher biological value after sieving than did the unsieved brew but true protein digestibility was negatively affected by Marissa preparation. Consumption of sorghum for food purposes is declining because of a change in food habits and consumer preference brought about by economic status, whereas use for animal feed and other industrial purposes is increasing. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Pearl World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Economic Importance of Weeds Weeds have certain effects in agriculture, which are mostly in the form of different harmful results but somehow there are also some beneficial effects. Among the amino acids, digestibilities of glycine, proline and histidine appeared to be the most depressed in the high tannin sorghums, as compared to the low tannin sorghums. Although the whole ground cereal contained higher amounts of niacin than did the decorticated cereal, urinary losses of N-methylnicotinamine were higher when the decorticated cereal was fed than when the whole ground cereal was used. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 40:5–19, Belayachi L, Delmas M (1997) Sweet sorghum bagasse: a raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp. The widely accepted explanation for positive effects of PA on protein digestion and metabolism is that PA-protein complexes escape ruminal degradation and the protein is available in the lower tract. The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves has created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. It is true that sorghum proteins are slightly less digestible than maize but as eaten in processed forms they are readily available and do not cause major problems. The continent produces about 20 million tonnes of sorghum per annum, about one-third of the world crop. However, the identification of anthracnose resistant germplasm from many diverse regions could result in the identifi-cation of new sources of genetic variation for resistance. The centre of origin/diversity of various vegetable crops reveals that a number of vegetable crops of economic importance and their wild relatives originated in this region. J SAT Agric Res 2(1). Grasses are, in human terms, perhaps the most economically important plant family. ISBN 8933-30-85, Reddy BVS, Ashok Kumar A, Sharma HC, Srinivasa Rao P, Blümmel M, Ravinder Reddy Ch, Sharma R, Deshpande S, DattaMazumdar S and Dinakaran E (2012) Sorghum improvement (1980–2010): status and way forward. In: Dendy DAV (ed) Sorghum and millets: chemistry and technology. Cereal Food World 31:179–182, Khalil JK, Sawaya WN, Safi WJ, AlMohammad HM (1984) Chemical composition and nutritional quality of sorghum flour and bread. All grains were grown in the same field under similar conditions. Response of Sorghum Accessions from Four African Countries against Colletotrichum sublineolum, Causa... Why do people prefer diversified selection? In terms of tonnage, sorghum is Africa’s second most important cereal. as waste. Subramanian V, Metta VC (2000) Sorghum grain for poultry feed. In: Proceedings of the Expert Meeting, ICRISAT, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, 1-4 July 2003. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, 18 pp, MacLean WC, Lopez de Romana G, Placko RP, Graham GG (1981) Protein quality and digestibility of sorghum in preschool children: balances studies and plasma free amino acids. The ability of pigeonpea to produce economic yields under soil moisture. The addition of chickpea and peanuts improved the quality of kisra a staple food of Sudan. The baby food developed from sorghum/millet malt, milk powder and processed by drum drier provides a safe level of protein for children above the age of one month. Sorghums containing tannins are widely reported to reduce caloric availability and hence weight gain in animals. In East Africa including Ethiopia and Sudan, we can find tremendous varieties of animal coat-color as well as of sorghum. In: Fuleky G (ed) Cultivated plants, primarily as food sources, Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS). Pigmented and tannin sorghum varieties have high antioxidant levels that are comparable to fruits and vegetables. Not affiliated This formulation and way of processing is well suited for commercial production of sorghum/millet based baby food. Under a changing climate regime sorghum would assume renewed importance as a food and industrial crop, and therefore concerted focus is necessary on such marginalized crops to ensure food and nutritional security in a sustainable manner in the years to come. National Academy Press, 3rd rev. Effect of depithing. luteolinidin and apigenidin) that give stable pigments at high pH. Twenty-nine accessions showed variation in disease response within and between experi-ments. Academic Press, New York, USA 1997 pp, ICRISAT & FAO (1996) The world sorghum and millet economies. Gains were not affected by diet, but feed consumption was 9% higher (P greater than.05) and feed efficiency 10% (P greater than .01) poorer for pigs fed Ga615 than for those fed low tannin sorghums. Diets were supplemented with casein to provide .70 and .60% lysine in digestion trials 1 and 2, respectively. *Sorghum starch content lower than corn (by about 2%) but higher than barley and wheat •Sorghum starch typically about 62% as-fed *Sorghum amylose content similar to ‘normal’ (i.e. Corn and the low tannin sorghums had similar digestibilities. The lowest vitamin content was found in highly refined rice, containing only about 5% of the folate and 10% of the niacin present in brown rice. 3) Most of the cases of crossing are recognized and remembered as long as the Bodi keep their cattle in their compound. J Cereal Sci 44:236–251, Eggum BO, Monowar L, Bach Knudsen KE, Munch L, Axtell JD (1983) Nutritional quality of sorghum and sorghum foods from Sudan. However, Sorghum is rich in dietary fiber. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 689–729, Rooney WL, Blumenthal J, Bean B, Mullet JE (2007) Designing sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy feedstock. Tryptophan (chemical score = 77) was the first limiting amino acid in date seed proteins (FAO/WHO, 1973). Several myths affect the perceived nutritional and processing quality of sorghum. That is, the color polymorphism that arose in the process of domestication is needed for the cultural phenomena of human beings as well as the biological ones of animals and plants. Sorghum 2. Sorghum usually grows poorly on sandy soils, except where a heavy textured sub-soil is present. The discoloration and softening of the grain reduces processing quality significantly. The one exception was methionine digestibilities at the terminal ileum, which did not differ between the high and low tannin sorghums. This paper reviews available information on sorghum phytochemicals, how the information relates to current phytonutrient research and how it has potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp 325–364, CFC & ICRISAT (2004) Alternative uses of sorghum and pearl millet in Asia. However, these figures do not do justice to the importance of sorghum in Africa. Clustering did not concur particularly well with the major classification system applied in Eritrea, highland versus lowland. The two cultivars were similar in proximate composition (white 15.3% protein, reddish-white 15.9% protein), mineral profile, fatty acid composition, vitamin content (except vitamin-B12 was higher in reddish-white), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER). Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in both with chemical scores of 45 and 47 for the proteins of white and reddish-white cultivars, respectively. Sorghum 2.1. sorghum is the most important ingredient for the production of distilled beverages, such as maotai and kaoliang. Most of the sorghum is consumed in the countries where it is produced and world trade is mainly linked to demand for livestock products, which is governed by the feed requirements and prices in developed countries. Studies on the mechanism of tolerance of iron chlorosis and Al-toxicity in groundnut in problem soils Cereals like Sorghum, Millets, Wheat, Maize and Rice are major staple foods of the most population. Thus, the feed efficiency is reduced but contrary to popular belief the animal do not get sick and do not die. Although the economic injury level (EIL) and the economic threshold (ET) are fundamental integrated pest management (IPM) concepts, they are often confused. In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. Working Paper Series no. The protein quality and digestibility of two high lysine (2.9-3.0 g/100 g protein) and tow conventional varieties (lysine content 2.1-2.2 g/100 g protein) of whole grain sorghum milled as flour were assessed through balance studies in 13 children 6-30 months of age. Hydrolyzable tannins are potentially toxic to ruminants. Economic importance . Sorghum 2.1. If corn’s high input costs make you queasy, another grass crop exists that might fit some of your acres. All subjects received both experimental treatments, made complete collections of urine and stools, and gave fasting blood samples at the ends of both experimental periods. 4. 8. food. Refining resulted in marked losses of all vitamins studied. In: Vilas A Tonapi, B Dayakar Rao and JV Patil (eds) Millets-promotion for food, feed, fodder, nutritional and environmental security. BIOREFINERY. April 2-4, 2003m Pretoria, South Africa. Barnyard millet 5. In this document ‘cultivated sorghum’ or ‘sorghum’ will be used to refer to Sorghum bicolor Green gram 4. Common millet 4. J SAT Agric Res 10. Pigmented sorghums contain unique anthocyanins that could be potential food colorants. 10. Finally was compared the influence of replacing wheat bran with sorghum bran in bread. Global Food Security 8:9–18. Standard image High-resolution image Export PowerPoint slide Farmers stated repeatedly that sorghum is their most important subsistence crop. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure, polyphenols, phytic acid, starch and non-starch polysaccharides) and endogenous factors (disulphide and non-disulphide crosslinking, kafirin hydrophobicity and changes in protein secondary structure). Little millet 3. Sorghum is mostly … Currently, the development of a renewable transportation fuel is ethanol based. Black gram 3. Rye, wheat, barley, rice, maize and sorghum were milled into more or less refined fractions, and the content of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, biotin, niacin and tryptophan were determined. Given this history and the existing genetic improvement infrastructure available for the species, it is logical to expect that sorghum hybrids for dedicated bioenergy production can be developed in the near-term future and will be grown and used for bioenergy production. In Africa, although only a few countries contribute a major share of area, sorghum is widely distributed and is a major staple food grain in large parts of the continent. Technical and institutional options for sorghum grain mold management: proceedings of an International Consultation, 18-19 May 2000, ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. deficit makes it an important crop of dry land agriculture. J SAT Agric Res 8. Finger millet has tannins in some varieties that contain a red testa. Pearl millet is a climate hardy crop which is grown in harsh conditions, but as a subsistence crop. This allows many generations to occur in one season and accounts for the rapid build-up of extremely high midge densities especially where the flowering period of sorghum is extended by successive plantings Difficult to remove weeds from tree row. 34, Common Fund for Commodities, P.O. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates …

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