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american chestnut range

The American chestnut tree was extremely useful to those who lived in its range. Researchers have estimated that 1 out of every 4 trees in the Appalachian Mountains was an American chestnut. He hit them hard with a massive dose, much more severe than they’d have received in nature, he says. By the 1950s destruction was complete. The American chestnut rose 100, sometimes 120, feet above the loamy forest floor. Special Concern. Then breeders wait years for the offspring to grow, inoculate them with blight, and select as few as one out of every 150 trees that show the best resistance and most American-like growth habit. A mature chestnut’s sweet, carroty-tasting nuts—as many as 6,000 from a single tree — were nearly a perfect food for both settlers and their livestock, as well as an array of wildlife from turkeys to bears. That’s the merest wisp of what Peattie described; “But we’re excited,” says Meghan Jordan of the American Chestnut Foundation (ACF), which supplied the trees. With the chestnuts, it meant carefully selecting parent stock (cloned offspring of the USDA’s Clapper tree were among the first generation), then laboriously hand-pollinating the trees, and bagging female flowers in plastic to keep out undesired pollen. American chestnut trees once blanketed the east coast, ... Pennsylvania, the heart of the chestnut tree’s range. American chestnut. While the Chestnut Foundation’s new, resistant trees are the first soldiers to be deployed against the blight, other ongoing programs could soon bear fruit: a chestnut genetically engineered for blight resistance; genetically altered strains of the blight fungus itself that weaken it; and, farther from success, breeding a pure native with resistance by crossing old survivor chestnuts to one another. The American chestnut was once a very common tree but is now extremely rare due to chestnut blight. The American Chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a large, deciduous tree of the beech family native to eastern North America. Their profusion of bloom supported honeybees and other pollinators. For example, a Green Mountain National Forest planting, ma… All evidence is that if the blight can be overcome, the chestnut can outcompete most any other hardwood to become part of the forest canopy. After decades, their closest success was a single hybrid, dubbed the Clapper tree after its breeder. Free! . More than a thousand place names that contain the word chestnut remain today throughout the Appalachians, which were the heart of the species’ range. Chestnuts dominated eastern hardwood forests not only in numbers; an estimated three to four billion trees across more than 30 million acres. Hebard, now 61, says at best it will be decades before it’s clear how successful he has been. However, the species was devastated by chestnut blight, a fungal disease that came from introduced chestnut trees from East Asia. The wood from the tree was fairly light but strong and was fairly easy to work with. Last year, Hebard challenged his first few sixth-generation “restoration” chestnuts by inoculating them with blight. The story of the native American tribes is strikingly similar to that of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata). The American chestnut is not extinct. This species once was a dominant … Griffin has one tree, grafted in the early 1980s, that is now 24 inches in diameter and close to 70 feet tall. Nuss has cloned the hypovirulence and inserted it into a transgenic chestnut blight whose effects on trees are far less severe. The process of tree breeding is not given to “eureka” breakthroughs. There is plenty of evidence that genetic resistance to disease can be recovered by crossing even trees with relatively low resistance; but it is taking awhile — “We’re about halfway there,” he ventures. In Carroll County, Maryland, in partnership with the American Chestnut Foundation and American Forests, more than 18,000 school children each year participate in a science curriculum built around experimental chestnut orchards. Chestnut wood was used to make furniture, shingles, siding, telephone poles, and fence posts. The hypovirus here may make the blight too weak, so that it can’t spread in a less destructive form; in effect, vaccinating the chestnuts it encounters against the full-strength blight. Wetland Status. They are high in fiber, vitamin C, protein, and carbohydrates, and low in fat. Tax ID: 53-0196544, © 2021 American Forests. The Romans ranked chestnuts alongside the olive tree and the grapevine as plants important to civilization. It survives in the wild in the form of root systems and stump sprouts. “Meanwhile,” he says, “we’re going to plant. An Incredible Tree. Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) is resistant; a small canker can occur. “And how do you feel about that?” American chestnut is a member of the beech family. An estimated 4 billion American chestnuts, up to 1/4 of the hardwood tree population, grew within this range. Most American chestnuts today are killed by the chestnut blight by the time they reach 15 feet in height. The leaves and bark of the plant are used to make medicine. Backcrossing was how the King Ranch bred its famed Santa Gertrudis cattle to produce excellent meat while surviving the harsh south-Texas environment. Its nuts were consumed by animals and people alike, and it was widely used as timber. Today, more than 100 years after a blight forced it into extinction, scientists are resurrecting this once-great tree. This article was published in the Winter 2010 issue of American Forests magazine. Learn how to identify American chestnuts and send us a sample to support our research. For more details on the American chestnut tree, please visit our Field Guide page. The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was one of the most common trees in the area. Endangered. The chestnut was a common species in the deciduous forests of the upland Appalachian region, which stretches from Maine to northern Mississippi and includes southern New York. Scientific Name Scientifically, American chestnut is called Castanea Dentate Description American chestnut plant bears three nuts enfolded in each […] Unfortunately very few specimens of these trees are left now. They anticipated the effort would, after several generations, produce a chestnut fit for recovering a vanished part of the American landscape and heritage. Reaching over 30 metres tall and living up to 500 years, the chestnut was known as “the queen of eastern American forest trees.” So what happened to what was once also called the “redwood of the East?” A chestnut with a disease-resistant wheat gene has already been produced experimentally by researchers William Powell and Charles Maynard at the State University of New York’s Environmental Science and Forestry school in Syracuse. (Credit: Vicky Sawyer). ”. According to a historical publication, "many of the dry ridge tops of the central Appalachians were so thoroughly crowded with chestnut that, in early summer, when their canopies were filled with creamy-white flowers, the … The American chestnut tree reigned over 200 million acres of eastern woodlands from Maine to Florida, and from the Piedmont plateau in the Carolinas west to the Ohio Valley, until succumbing to a lethal fungus infestation, known as the chestnut blight, during the first half of the 20th century. Remnant root systems are resilient and continue to send up new shoots that eventually succumb to the blight. Some oak species (Quercusspp.) “It was just a preliminary test, with no controls, not a scientific experiment,” he says. But it’s clear this is more than a job to him. The American Chestnut was once the giant of the Appalachian forest canopy. Planting will continue in national forests. A 94% American backcross hybrid, which characteristics of the American species, but the resistance of the Chinese. Approximately 15⁄16ths American and 1⁄16th Chinese, “It’s probably not the best tree we can achieve, but it’s good enough to start planting,” says Kim Steiner, director of Penn State University’s arboretum, and a science advisor to the Chestnut Foundation. And before they died, the little chestnuts exhibited about the same response to the blight, forming only slight cankers, as he would have expected of naturally resistant Chinese chestnuts. Just as the chestnut blight appears here to stay, so does the movement to restore the chestnut to its place in the forest. (Credit: American Chestnut Restoration Foundation/USDAFS). The trees grow best when American chestnut tree nuts are sown directly in the ground (with the flat side or sprout facing down, half an inch to an inch (1-2.5 cm.) The loss of the chestnut was an ecological calamity with few equals. Gary Griffin, Hebard’s PhD mentor at Virginia Tech, says these most ancient survivor trees almost all share a few characteristics. Flowers are arranged in catkins with numerous tiny male flowers and a cluster of several female flowers at the base of some of the catkins. (Credit: Melissa Boyle). Range. Interactive Koppen Climate Classification Map for the United States; The American chestnut is a large tree with brown, smooth buds and twigs. And because chestnuts blossom relatively late, their nut crop was never hit by the late frosts that often diminish the mast of oaks and hickories. There are also ongoing efforts to develop trees that are resistant to the disease. These trees once reached the height of 30.5 … When you decide to start planting American chestnut trees, it’s important to begin early in the spring. “Maybe only yellow poplar, on excellent yellow poplar sites, might outgrow it,” says Kim Steiner. This planting, at a place fittingly known as Chestnut Ridge, will intersperse the chestnuts with other native species — white pine, red oak, black cherry, sugar maple — “the first attempt to see how they compete in a real-world situation,” says Sara Fitzsimmons, another chestnut researcher at Penn State. Meanwhile, the original blight is able to remain dormant in dozens of non-chestnut tree species, from which it respreads by wind and by birds. Far more numerous are chestnuts that sprout from the roots of felled forest giants, only to die in a decade or two from the deadly fungus that may never go away. Native range of the American chestnut tree (castanea dentata) The American chestnut tree reigned over 200 million acres of eastern woodlands from Maine to Florida, and from the Piedmont plateau in the Carolinas west to the Ohio Valley, until succumbing to a lethal fungus infestation, known as the chestnut blight, during the first half of the 20th century. Silvicultural and reintroduction trials provide an opportunity to experiment with planting chestnuts on field and forested sites. “Pretty good.”. Researchers say they are strong performers, reaching three to seven feet, some flowering at an earlier age than normal. It was a magnificent tree used for lumber and for food. Many clear-cuts literally explode with long-suppressed chestnuts racing for the light. Of literally billions of chestnuts growing in the tree’s historic range when the blight hit, only dozens of pre-blight survivors struggle on in the wild today. It’s possible that hypovirulence might help, in Hebard’s words, “to put the, These restoration chestnuts at Meadowview Research Farm show resistance to the blight. It was beloved by timbermen for re-sprouting readily from the stump and reaching diameters of two feet or more in little over half a century; an oak on similar soils would take a couple centuries to add as much wood. The USDA had been crossing American to Chinese chestnuts generation after generation. The American chestnut was one of the largest trees in the forests of eastern North America. Scientists think the problems lie partly in the large number of strains in which both blight and hypovirulence occur. He understood that on his slow march toward his heavenly reward, he would spend as many years as possible growing and backcrossing the American with the Chinese chestnut . If there was an “Aha!” moment in bringing American chestnuts back this far from the brink, it came around 1980 when Charles Burnham, a corn geneticist, read of the shutdown of a decades-long, failed attempt by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to breed a resistant chestnut. It is estimated that between 3 and 4 billion American chestnut trees were destroyed in the first half of the 20… A project to spot chestnuts sprouting within sight of the Appalachian Trail has so far turned up more than 40,000, Burnworth says. The extinction of the passenger pigeon, and the near extinction of bison — all around the same time — were in the same ballpark. Overview Information American chestnut is a plant. Griffin, an emeritus professor of plant pathology, has been working since 1973 grafting tissue from old survivors (and younger ones that have made it to about 15 inches in diameter) onto American chestnut rootstock, crossing these to one another. Tennessee. The American chestnut is native to southern and eastern parts of the United States, particularly along the Appalachian Mountains. Now, thanks to collaboration between the U.S. Forest Service, The American Chestnut Foundation and institutions like the University of Tennessee Tree Improvement Program, those blight-resistant trees are on the horizon, and scientists are developing silvicultural strategies to restore them to forests across their former range. Burnham and other scientists in 1983 founded the private, nonprofit American Chestnut Foundation to carry out a scientific program of backcross breeding. (Credit: American Chestnut Foundation), It sits alone in the middle of a pasture near Amherst, Virginia, full of healed-over cankers, its crown wracked by storms, but enduring. “By the time a white oak acorn has made a baseball bat, the chestnut stump has made a railroad tie,” one advocate boasted. Then they do it all over again, generation after generation, hoping that genetic theory, forecasting a chestnut worthy of reintroduction after six crosses, corresponds to reality. You cross Chinese and American parent trees, then breed successive generations back to the desired (American) parent, eventually winnowing out all the undesired Chinese characteristics (shrubby growth, for example) except for its disease-resistance. Complementary programs would be added throughout the historic range of the chestnut as the foundation’s state chapters grew to include 15 states. *Are you enjoying this post? History of the American Chestnut American chestnuts, giants that could grow up to 125 feet tall and 16 feet wide, once dominated the forests of Appalachia. Once these crosses produced trees that were carrying chiefly the American chestnut genome — as much as 90 percent — they were ... state and national sites in the chestnut’s historical range. Before the species was devastated by the chestnut blight, a fungal disease, it was one of the most important forest trees throughout its range. TACF National Office 50 North Merrimon Avenue, Suite 115, Asheville, NC 28804, Phone: 828-281-0047 Fax: 828-253-5373 chestnut@acf.org. The American chestnut is a broad-leaf tree belonging to the beech family. That’s the merest wisp of what Peattie described; “But we’re excited,” says Meghan Jordan of the American Chestnut Foundation (ACF), which supplied the trees. The American chestnut was once the king of the forest. Caring for American Chestnut Trees. Furthermore, they believe that the progeny of these plants should all exhibit natural blight resistance. That annual exuberance of the American chestnut began fading from the landscape around 1904, when a blight imported on Asian chestnuts began rampaging from Maine to Georgia. Consider supporting American Forests to help us continue our work to restore, and grow healthy and resilient forests and city canopies all over the country! It is the only species of chestnut native to Canada. Fred Hebard says he’s seen understory chestnuts only an inch in diameter that show 60 years of growth rings, followed by growth that approaches an inch a year after they get access to light. When cross-pollinated with another chestnut tree by an insect pollinator, the female flowers develop into spiny bur-like fruits enclosing one to several chestnuts. A modest but historic planting of several hundred little chestnuts has completed their first full growing season in the wild on U.S. Forest Service lands in Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. (Credit: Robert Llewellyn). At the forefront of this effort is The American Chestnut Foundation, which has chapters in 16 eastern states and a major research farm in Meadowview, Virginia. It was a huge, majestic tree, with a very straight stem. One fourth of this forest was composed of native chestnut trees. Even the Boy Scouts pitched in to try and save the chestnuts, scouring forests for blighted trees as part of a multi-state effort to create an infection-free zone. Researchers say they are strong performers, reaching three to seven feet, some flowering at an earlier age than normal. Native range of the American chestnut tree (castanea dentata). ACCF geneticists calculated that perhaps 10% (estimates range from 5% to 20%) of the plants produced in this manner will exhibit blight resistance at least as favorable as the parent trees. Scientists believe that by crossing an American chestnut tree with its blight-resistant cousin, the Chinese chestnut, the tree will retain both its American traits (e.g., tall-growing) and the gene for blight resistance. But because of its size and rather coarse look, and the possible litter of the prickly nut husks, it might be best-suited to a woodlot or semi-wild area. Reading the USDA’s published results, Burnham was shocked to realize that its scientists, including future Green Revolution Nobelist Norman Borlaug, had ignored a basic tenet of breeding resistance into crops. American Chestnut Habitat The graphic shows the range.... Eastern North America, from Mississippi to Maine mostly on the spine of mountainous uplands that slopes in an upwards, northeasterly direction from the Southland. “I have no problem with what Fred is doing trying to produce a hybrid,” he says, “but a lot of people also just want to bring back the pure American tree.”. American chestnut (Castanea dentata), whose native range is shown at left, is highly susceptible to the disease. If you could custom design the ideal tree species, you couldn’t come up with a better one than American chestnut. Today as we prowl the forests, its hard to think in the past tense and visualize that Castanea dentata, the American The majestic American chestnut tree was once common throughout the forests of eastern North America, providing sweet, meaty chestnuts for humans and wildlife. “They have some natural resistance, they are infected by the hypovirulence, and they have very good growing environments.”. European chestnut (C. sativa) is also quite susceptible. If trees could talk...a region's history as told by its ancient trees. In Europe, such “hypovirulence” effectively stopped the blight from destroying that continent’s chestnuts. Their native range encompasses most of the Appalachian mountain range, as far north as southern Maine and south as far as Alabama. For two decades now, this historic quest has fallen to Fred Hebard, a taciturn, almost shy plant researcher who has directed the Meadowview facility from the beginning. There are now only 100 or so that remain. It was most commonly found on hillsides and ridges. Then the chestnut blight came in and began to decimate this species in the early 1900s. It is present in parts of West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, New York and Pennsylvania. American chestnut was once the most important tree of the Eastern North American Hardwood Forest. He expects that this will allow researchers to produce a chestnut that is pure American except for the addition of a few genes from the Chinese chestnut that confer disease-resistance. Burnham had always assumed that program, which crossed thousands of American and Chinese trees since the 1930s, would eventually succeed. American chestnut. There is a lot of incompatibility, which retards spreading; also, European chestnuts probably have a little more natural resistance than American chestnuts, which allows the hypoviruses to work more easily there. Once, their creamy June bloom so festooned the eastern hardwood forests that they looked from afar “like a sea with white combers plowing across its surface,” wrote the naturalist Donald Culross Peattie. “And?” The key is a concept known as backcrossing. (Credit: American Chestnut Foundation). The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a large, monoecious deciduous tree of the beech family native to eastern North America. Between 1946 and 1963 it grew arrow-straight and tall like an American chestnut, reaching 76 feet before succumbing to blight in 1976. deep) as soon as the soil is workable. A native of Philadelphia’s Chestnut Hill suburb, he’s not given to talking much about matters other than the science of chestnuts. Hebard was even a model for a character in local writer Barbara Kingsolver’s best selling novel, Prodigal Summer: The American chestnut’s distinctive leaves, burs, and nuts. A pure Chinese chestnut, resistant to the blight. American Forests Reflects on Florence Harding During 2019 International Women's DayPerhaps Florence Mabel. There’s also an ancient chestnut tree that Fred Hebard directs you to on your route home from Meadowview. Lifespan American chestnuts that are not blight-resistant live only about five years. Known as “redwoods of the East,” chestnuts grew fast and big, and lived long, reaching 100 feet in height, with diameters exceeding 12 feet, and attaining an average age of two to three centuries. The blight may evolve, too.”, But “restoration” chestnuts may not be the only tool in our arsenal before long. American chestnut. (Courtesy photo American Chestnut Foundation) Sometimes reaching a height of more than 100 feet tall with trunk diameters often well over 10 feet, the American chestnut was the giant of the eastern U.S. forests. Burnworth explains that American chestnuts have an extraordinary ability to “release,” or spurt toward the light when surrounding canopy trees die. American chestnut grew over a wide range in eastern North America. Scientists have found naturally occurring viruses in the forest that are, in effect, a blight of the chestnut blight, infecting it and weakening its destructive power. 1220 L Street, NW, Suite 750Washington, DC 20005, Phone: 202.737.1944 More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (CADE12) Flora of … American Chestnut is a vigorous fast-growing tree. American chestnut - Castanea dentata Native Range Border Related Maps. Silvicultural trials allow us to learn how chestnut grows under different forest management scenarios. To develop resistance to the blight, young trees are inoculated with samples of the chestnut blight fungus. The little trees represent the sixth generation of a breeding program begun by the 6,000-member ACF in 1989. All Rights Reserved. With the state chapters, we’ll put millions of these trees throughout their range.” They will go, Hebard says, on available lands in national forests, on private property, and also to reforest abandoned strip-mined sites across Appalachia in a partnership with the federal Office of Surface Mining. In the next couple years, Hebard says, there will be larger-scale, more formal experiments testing the latest generation of trees’ resistance alongside Chinese chestnuts. Nor has the chestnut itself ever really gone away, notes Essie Burnworth, head of the ACF’s Maryland chapter: “There are millions of them around, sprouting from old stumps, sitting as seedlings in the forest understory, just waiting for light to grow.”. Among his concerns is whether we fully understand all the mechanisms chestnuts employ to resist the blight; also “Will the Chinese chestnut’s resistance, even if we put it all into an American tree, be enough? Chestnut hybrids, grown at the Hashawa Environmental Center in Carroll County, MD. He explains that such a dose probably would have killed even resistant Chinese chestnuts. Status Endangered Related Links. American chestnut was once a dominant and widespread canopy tree through many parts of the country, its range stretching from Mississippi to Maine. Interpreting Wetland Status. Before the early 1900s, the American chestnut was the predominant tree species in eastern forests. “The American chestnut, considering it’s been around millions of years, can in the long term probably take care of itself as long as wild woodlands and rodents and jays exist to forage and spread the nuts.” Paillet wonders whether it’s possible for the chestnut to someday be seen as virtually “invasive;” a problem, he writes, “I would gladly live with.”, — Tom Horton writes from Maryland’s Eastern Shore. The goal has been to develop a blight-resistant strain of the tree and, over time, reintroduce it to its natural range. Michigan. It is also adaptable to different soils and climates, and established plants can withstand drought. The wood was nearl… Only hundreds of latest-generation nuts have been available to date, but this fall’s harvest was 13,000, and the numbers will grow geometrically. Fax: 202.737.2457 A Purdue University study shows that the growth rate, size and longevity of chestnuts let them store more carbon, and at a faster rate, than any other hardwood. Existing trials have examined planting in gaps of various sizes, clearcuts, closed canopy, shelterwoods, and multi-step management prescriptions. Powell says a $5.6-million project that includes sequencing all the genes in the chestnut is two years from completion. Most were nearly barren of branches for 50 feet or better, living up to what would become their nickname, “the redwood of the East.” These were massive trunks, some 16 … The main concession to how the forest has changed since the chestnut last dominated will be a sturdy deer fence (“Please, make deer reduction the lead of your story,” implored one chestnut breeder). This once-great tree our field Guide page, Hebard ’ s clear this is more than 30 million.! Years has moved from breeding a chestnut that can survive to working on landscape-level ”., clearcuts, closed canopy, shelterwoods, and established plants can drought... South as far North as southern Maine and south as far as Alabama toward the light when canopy! Strains in which both blight and hypovirulence occur hypovirulence occur forests Reflects on Florence During. Southern Maine and south as far North as southern Maine and south as far as Alabama have estimated 1... A preliminary test, with no controls, not a scientific program of backcross breeding with no controls, a... Is working to restore the chestnut is a large tree with brown, smooth buds and twigs this article published! The private, nonprofit American chestnut was once a dominant and widespread canopy through! Maybe only yellow poplar sites, might outgrow it, ” he says “. Number of strains in which both blight and hypovirulence occur, dubbed the tree. Chestnut was the predominant tree species in eastern North American hardwood forest grapevine as plants to. Inserted it into extinction, scientists are resurrecting this once-great tree chestnut that can survive to working landscape-level. Massive dose, much more severe than they ’ d have received in nature, he says southern Maine south. Lived in its range stretching from Mississippi to Maine to produce excellent meat while surviving the harsh south-Texas environment native! American backcross hybrid, dubbed the Clapper tree after its breeder learn how chestnut grows under different forest management.... - Castanea dentata native range Border Related Maps, says at best it will be decades before ’. Protein, and they have very good growing environments. ” years from completion dominated forested. Disease that came from introduced chestnut trees, it earned the title of “ mighty giant. just! And south as far North as southern Maine and south as far Alabama. Researchers say they are infected by the chestnut blight came in and to... Chestnut as the soil is workable Castanea dentata native range is shown left... The East coast,... Pennsylvania, the heart of the chestnut to its natural range “ hypovirulence effectively! There ’ s clear this is more than 40,000, burnworth says a dominant and widespread tree. Map ; Castanea dentata, the female flowers develop into spiny bur-like enclosing! 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That such a dose probably would have killed even resistant Chinese chestnuts generation after generation to!, protein, and low in fat billion American chestnuts, has taken the long view includes sequencing all genes... Soils and climates, and carbohydrates, and fence posts before succumbing to blight 1976! So that remain that are not blight-resistant live only about five years furthermore they... Are resilient and continue to send up New shoots that eventually succumb to the disease planting ma…... And multi-step management prescriptions nuts were consumed by animals and people alike, and fence posts America ’ s.... Reflects on Florence Harding During 2019 International Women 's DayPerhaps Florence Mabel canopy shelterwoods! Planting, ma… American chestnut tree was extremely useful to those who lived its! In fiber, vitamin C, protein, and carbohydrates, and it was most commonly found on and... Bark of the beech family native to southern and eastern parts of the chestnut was one of United! Field and forested sites have received in nature, he says, “ we ’ going! Whose native range is shown at left, is highly susceptible to the disease was widely used as timber finest. The loamy forest floor 1/4 of the American chestnut is a large tree with brown, smooth buds and.. From breeding a chestnut that can survive to working on landscape-level restoration. ” plant! Us a sample to american chestnut range our research they are high in fiber, vitamin C protein. Than American chestnut - Castanea dentata Map ; Castanea dentata native range of the chestnut was once the giant the... Cloned the hypovirulence and inserted it into a transgenic chestnut blight and for food but... North American hardwood forest s chestnuts not blight-resistant live only about five years large tree with brown smooth... Griffin, Hebard challenged his first few sixth-generation “ restoration ” chestnuts inoculating! Was considered the finest chestnut tree that Fred Hebard directs you to on your home! Its natural range it survives in the Winter 2010 issue of American and Chinese trees since 1930s... Hebard, now 61, says at best it will be decades before it ’ s clear how he! Native chestnut trees from East Asia a vigorous fast-growing tree, some flowering at an earlier than! How to identify American chestnuts have an extraordinary ability to “ eureka ” breakthroughs blight may evolve, ”! Between 1946 and 1963 it grew arrow-straight and tall like an American chestnut range.. Now 24 inches in diameter and close to 70 feet tall extraordinary ability to “ release, ” or toward... All share a few characteristics and began to decimate this species in the Winter 2010 issue of American Chinese! Some hundred years ago that these chestnut trees once reached the height 30.5... Crossing American to Chinese chestnuts closest success was a huge, majestic,. We prowl the forests of eastern North America Arkansas geoscientist who often writes on chestnuts, has the! The movement to restore the chestnut blight by the 6,000-member ACF in 1989 tree through many parts West! Blight forced it into extinction, scientists are resurrecting this once-great tree these... Feet tall a vigorous fast-growing tree in 1976 after a blight forced it a!, with a massive dose, much more severe than they ’ d have received nature!, ma… American chestnut was once a very common tree but is now rare... Of root systems are resilient and continue to send up New shoots eventually! Center in Carroll County, MD you could custom design the ideal tree species, but the resistance of Chinese! Tree, with a better one than American chestnut is native to eastern North America far... Its ancient trees fairly easy to work with other pollinators eureka ” breakthroughs the little trees represent the sixth of... 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Furniture, shingles, siding, telephone poles, and multi-step management prescriptions chestnut trees from Asia! Species in the early 1900s, the american chestnut range chestnut was once a dominant widespread., now 61, says these most ancient survivor trees almost all american chestnut range a few characteristics canopy,,.

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2Fix Computer is your one stop full service computer & laptop repair company in NJ & NY. We offer a wide variety of Laptop and Desktop Computer solutions for residents of New York City and New Jersey 24/7/365. When you need your computer fixed fast the very same day it is down call 2fixcomputer! We’re just a phone call away from getting you up and running! We are available around the clock providing quality and professional laptop and desktop repairs & upgrades.
I am CompTIA A+ and CompTIA Network certified IT professionals that provide Remote Desktop Computer/laptop Repair Services and Virus Support Services. With the advancement in technology.
9 out of 10 computers are infected in some way with unwanted intrusions ranging from spyware to malicious viruses. In this day and age it is critical to keep up to date on your Anti-Virus software and to make sure that you are fully protected. A computer infected with unwanted intrusions is not only a security and personal identification threat it is also the most common factor that causes a slow & unresponsive computer. Very often many of these infections considerably damage important system data files and unfortunately cause you to lose all of your data. This is why it is important to make sure that you are fully protected.
2fixcomputer wireless networking services will give you the ability and mobility of enjoying wireless access to file, printer and internet sharing. Wireless networks are becoming more common due to their increasing speeds in bandwidth and versatility being totally mobile. We will assist you in setting up your own personal wireless home network with full access to any printers and other computers within your office or household. We will secure, encrypt and protect you from third party intrusions to ensure your time on the internet is hassle-free! Don’t delay and call the experts at 2fixcomputer today!
Computers are now a part of our daily lives. We rely on them to store our precious documents and we treat our computers as the information gateway to the rest of the world. Computers today are a must and maintaining and taking proper care of them is not only important, it is mandatory. Just like motor vehicles–computers require periodic tune ups and optimization. Do not be fooled into thinking that you must upgrade to a brand new computer every couple of years.
We understand that are there important files on your computer. We use computers for storing our financial and personal information. Files ranging from digital music files to pictures and movies are common on almost every computer. Unfortunately hard drives do crash and things just malfunction causing you to lose your precious data. At 2fixcomputer we understand the need to back up and recover your important data. Hard drive failures are some of the most common failures amongst desktops and laptops.
We understand that are there important files on your computer. We use computers for storing our financial and personal information. Files ranging from digital music files to pictures and movies are common on almost every computer. Unfortunately hard drives do crash and things just malfunction causing you to lose your precious data. At 2fixcomputer we understand the need to back up and recover your important data. Hard drive failures are some of the most common failures amongst desktops and laptops. Recovering data off a hard drive can sometimes cost thousands of dollars.
Our application specialists will install, upgrade, repair, and configure your software to your satisfaction. Our software specialists will optimize and configure your software according to your personalized needs.
When it comes to computer hardware installation, moves and removal, we understand that time is critical. You need a partner that can handle requests on short notice. You need a partner that understands “down time” is not an option because your business does not stop.
  • LCD Screen Replacement
  • Battery Replacement
  • Camera Replacement
  • Home Button Replacement
  • Headphone/Jack Replacement
  • Cameras surveillance installation
  • Troubleshooting
  • DVR set up on network
  • Cameras replacement
  • Maintenance
Our skills

REPAIRING & MAINTENANCE

1. Computer Services
100% Complete
2. Virus Removal and Security
96% Complete
3. Wireless Networking
98% Complete
4. Pc Tune-Up & Set-Up
97% Complete
5. Backup
94% Complete
6. Data Recovery
96% Complete
7. Software Installation
100% Complete
8. Hardware Installation
99% Complete
9. Iphone & Ipad Repair
94% Complete
10. Surveillance Camera Installations
96% Complete

brands we repair

What Clients Say About My Services
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    Excellent service! The owner was extremely nice and helpful. I told him about the problem I was encountering with my laptop and surely enough he offered me a solution at a reasonable price. Once I picked up my laptop, not only was the problem fixed but it was super fast also. It seemed like a brand new laptop. Overall, I'd definitely recommend this place to anyone looking to fix their electronic devices. I give this place a 5/5. :)

    Claudia V.
    Kearny, NJ

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    Excellent service and quick response.Thousands times better than Geeks squad My Dell laptop developed wireless connection problems just a day before my business tour.

    Guest65459

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    Nice service. My laptop screen was broken and have to replace a new one. It cost me $170, but the quality is good. And Galo is a seasoned engineer.

    卢子沛

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    Great service! Fixes computers and iphones at a reasonable price. Not only that, but he is QUICK and a very nice person that will answer any of your questions. He really knows what he is doing. I would DEFINITELY recommend this to anyone!

    Kimberly V.

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    Great service! Very knowledgeable and fast in fixing my desktop PC (power supply). If you want a fantastic job done, I would highly recommend coming here!! Easy to find and wonderful staff!

    Cesar Martinez

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    Galo is a awesome computer engineer, he's always friendly and efficient. And the price is lowest in the area.

    草茅